Richard Schantz



Richard (Rick) Schantz is a Principal Computer Scientist at BBN Technologies where he has spent his entire professional career spanning over four decades, researching, developing and transitioning various forms of software infrastructure for network focused and distributed computing. He is most well-known for formulating the concepts for distributed object computing, a highly stylized version of what we now know as middleware, and bringing the first instance of such technology to operational use with the Cronus distributed computing environment. More recently, he has been a key voice in the long and ongoing pursuit of making middleware solutions dynamic and responsive to changing underlying conditions through a series of projects focusing on methods for adaptive quality of service and adaptive cyber-defense methods.

After completing a PhD dissertation focused on An Operating System for a Network Computer [1] at Stony Brook University, he joined BBN to continue the pursuit of those ideas in the context of the emerging ARPANet, the precursor of the Internet, being developed at BBN and elsewhere. Working with the team that developed the earliest instance of a Resource Sharing Executive for ARPANet connected systems, he led the design and development of key components of system software for linking the operation of resource rich hosts in support of resource constrained hosts through distributed computing, focused on access control and resource accounting services for network access machines [2]. After that, he was a lead architect and designer for the National Software Works (NSW) system, an early very heterogeneous network operating system for ARPANet that linked software development tools across a variety of hosts, managing the access and file transfers needed to make them interoperable [3]. This system formed the basis for serious user trials involving 4 sites of the Air Force Logistics Command, one of the early value-added end-user experiments to test and evaluate both the emerging networking with the distributed computing concepts.

Experiences with developing these earlier systems led to the development of a third generation system for integrating the resources of collections of clusters of computers, by now running on the Internet, ARPANet's successor and the network regime we continue to operate under to this day. That system, Cronus, pioneered the distributed object computing model [4], as an organizing principle to overlay common services on a heterogeneous base within a middleware platform. Cronus additionally introduced the notion of software development tools for automating much of the software development to make network-ready client server applications. The distributed object computing ideas eventually emerged in an industry standard Common Object Request Broker Architecture (Corba) by the Object Management Group (OMG) standards group.

With the commercialization of these ideas well underway, and now embedded in commercial products, attention turned to higher levels of middleware abstraction, focusing on automatically managing the performance and resilience properties (the quality of service) for networked applications. After developing a framework for managing such properties (Quality of Service for Objects, or QuO) [5], including language constructs for specifying desired quality properties and management software for manipulating attributes to achieve end goal properties despite variability in the underlying computing environment. Specialized versions of these ideas were applied to different domains for managing diverse quality of service attributes ranging from embedded video [6] to redundancy management for highly reliable data access despite failures [7]. An offshoot of the dynamic behavior for managing quality of service was to apply the dynamic adaptation ideas to the problem of cyber-defense. The APOD project (Applications that Participate in their Own Defense) [8] initiated a series of cyber-security sense and react designs to mitigate the effect of potential cyber-attacks. Most recently, this has led to a new comprehensive cyber-defense architecture and design (A3: Advance Adaptive Applications) [9] that combines elements of application focused protection, detection of violations and possible intrusions and adaptation to detected zero day anomalies to automatically isolate and now under certain circumstances repair the application to bring it back to operation protected from that threat.

This body of work has led to well over 130 publications, a number of book chapters and compiled collections [10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15], as well as being named a Fellow of the ACM, the leading computer professional society. In addition, the Cronus system is now part of the Smithsonian Museum permanent collection of archived projects detailing important aspects of the computer revolution.

Selected publications:

  1. An Operating System for a Network Environment, E. Akkoyunlu, A. Bernstein and R. Schantz, Proceedings of the Symposium on Computer-Communications Networks and Teletraffic, Polytechnic Press, New York, April 1972;, Interprocess Communication Facilities for Network Operating Systems, Eralp Akkoyunlu, Arthur Bernstein and Richard Schantz, IEEE COMPUTER, June 1974.
  2. An Operational System for Computer Resource Sharing, B. Cosell, P. Johnson, J. Malman, R. Schantz, J. Sussman, R. Thomas, and D. Walden, Proceedings 5th ACM Symposium on Operating Systems Principles, Special Interest Group on Operating Systems (SIGOPS) of the ACM, November 1975, pp. 75-81.
  3. Operating Systems for Computer Networks, , Harry Forsdick, Richard Schantz and Robert Thomas, IEEE COMPUTER, January 1978, pp. 48-57; A Technical Overview of the National Software Works, Richard E. Schantz and Robert H. Thomas, RADC Technical Report RADC-TR-83-80, March 1983.
  4. The Architecture of the Cronus Distributed Operating System, R. Schantz, R. Thomas, G. Bono, 6th International IEEE Conference on Distributed Computing Systems, Cambridge, Ma., May 1986; Programming Support in the Cronus Distributed Operating System, ] R. Gurwitz, M. Dean, R. Schantz, 6th International IEEE Conference on Distributed Computing Systems, Cambridge, Ma., May 1986.
  5. Architectural Support for Quality of Service for CORBA Objects, Zinky JA, Bakken DE, Schantz RE, Theory and Practice of Object Systems (TAPOS), April, 1997; Vanegas R, Zinky JA, Loyall JP, Karr DA, Schantz RE, Bakken DE. QuO's Runtime Support for Quality of Service in Distributed Objects. Proceedings of the IFIP International Conference on Distributed Systems Platforms and Open Distributed Processing (Middleware'98), 15-18 September 1998, The Lake District, England.
  6. Flexible and Adaptive QoS Control for Distributed Real-time and Embedded Middleware , Richard E. Schantz, Joseph P. Loyall, Craig Rodrigues, Douglas C. Schmidt, Yamuna Krishnamurthy, and Irfan Pyarali, Middleware 2003, the ACM/IFIP/USENIX International Middleware Conference, June 2003, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
  7. AQuA: An Adaptive Architecture That Provides Dependable Distributed Objects , Cukier M, Ren J, Sabnis C, Henke D, Pistole J, Sanders WH, Bakken DE, Berman ME, Karr DA, Schantz RE. Proceedings of the 17th IEEE Symposium on Reliable Distributed Systems (SRDS'98), October 20-23, 1998, West Lafayette, Indiana, pp. 245-253.
  8. Defense-Enabling Using Advanced Middleware - An Example, Pal P, Webber F, Schantz RE, Atighetchi M, Loyall JP, Proceedings Milcom 2001, October 28-31, 2001, Tysons Corner, Virginia.
  9. Managed Execution Environment as a Moving-Target Defense Infrastructure, Partha Pal, Richard E. Schantz, Aaron Paulos, Brett Benyo: IEEE Security & Privacy 12(2): 51-59 (2014).
  10. Distributed Computing at BBN, Network Computing Software Infrastructure and Distributed Applications (1970-1990), R. E Schantz, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 28(1):72 - 88, January 2006; a chapter length version appears in A Culture of Innovation, Insider Accounts of Computing and Life at BBN, D. Walden and R. Nickerson editors, Waterside Publishing, 2011.
  11. Middleware for Distributed Systems, Schantz, Richard and Schmidt, Douglas, Chapter in Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Engineering, December 2007.
  12. Research Advances in Middleware for Distributed Systems: State of the Art , Richard E. Schantz and Douglas C. Schmidt, IFIP World Computer Congress, August 2002, Montreal, Canada; an expanded version in Kluwer Academic Publishers Communication Systems: The State of the Art", 2003.
  13. Dynamic QoS Management in Distributed Real-time Embedded Systems, Joseph Loyall and Richard Schantz, In Handbook of Real-Time and Embedded Systems, Insup Lee, Joe Leung, Sang Son (Editors), CRC Press, 2008. ISBN: 1-58488-678-1 and 978-1-58488-678-5.
  14. Middleware 2008 , ACM/IFIP/USENIX 9th International Middleware Conference, Leuven, Belgium, December 1-5, 2008, Proceedings, Valerie Issarny, Richard E. Schantz editors, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Elsevier Press, Jan 2008.
  15. BBN and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, RE Schantz, Prepared as a Case Study for America's Basic Research: Prosperity Through Discovery, A Policy Statement by the Research and Policy Committee of the Committee for Economic Development (CED), June 1998.


      • Stony Brook University (SUNY at Stony Brook), PhD in Computer Science, 1974
      • Stony Brook University, MS in Computer Science, 1970
      • New York University, BA in Mathematics, 1968


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